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The Second Great Awakening was a period of religious revival in the United States between 1790 and the 1840s. It followed the First Great Awakening of colonial America. Characteristics of this period include widespread conversions, increased church activity, social activism, and the emergence of new Christian denominations. The period is considered to have ended with the American Civil War, though its legacy continues to this day.
In a response to the perceived lapse in religious devotion following the Age of Enlightenment, a number of preachers sparked the First Great Awakening in the American colonies. Preacher Jonathan Edwards’s sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” for example, emphasized that God may cast wicked men to hell at any moment. Other preachers joined Edwards in the 1730s and 1740s in delivering sermons with vivid imagery to broad audiences. Their preaching style of connecting emotionally with common people, rather than advancing theological arguments, was widely imitated. The term “Great Awakening” is contested, but most agree that church activity increased in many areas during this time.
Social activism, especially in northern states, was an integral part of the Second Great Awakening. Advocates of the temperance movement criticized various effects of the role of alcohol in public life. Other activists began pushing for women’s rights, including the right to vote, during this period. Still others pushed for the reform of prisons. Finally, abolitionists gathered around the issue of slavery and called for its end in the United States.
The Second Great Awakening was also a period that saw the establishment of many new Christian denominations. Following the American Revolution, many desired religious independence as well as political independence from Europe. They interpreted the establishment of communities in new American lands as an opportunity to form churches free of European corruption. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as the Mormon Church, traces its origin to the Second Great Awakening. Similarly, the Baptists and the Shakers developed significantly during this period.
American history was significantly influenced by the Second Great Awakening. The strengthening of abolitionism increased tensions between the northern and southern states, which culminated in the American Civil War. The development of the temperance movement eventually resulted in a constitutional amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol. Some historians identify a Third Great Awakening that added international missionary work to the other forms of religious activity seen in earlier phases of a broader Great Awakening.
Frequently Asked Questions
What was the Second Great Awakening and when did it occur?
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival movement that took place in the United States from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, roughly from the 1790s to the 1830s. It was characterized by widespread revivals led by itinerant preachers, a surge in church membership, and the formation of new religious movements and denominations. The movement emphasized individual piety and a personal relationship with God, as well as moral issues such as the abolition of slavery and temperance.
Who were the key figures of the Second Great Awakening?
Key figures of the Second Great Awakening included preachers like Charles Grandison Finney, who is known for his innovative revival techniques and advocacy for social reforms; Lyman Beecher, who emphasized the importance of personal salvation and moral action; and Barton Stone and Alexander Campbell, who led the Restoration Movement aiming to restore the early Christian church. These leaders were instrumental in spreading the revivalist fervor and shaping the religious landscape of the era.
How did the Second Great Awakening impact American society?
The Second Great Awakening had a profound impact on American society. It led to the growth of new denominations and the expansion of existing ones, increased participation in religious activities, and inspired social reform movements. According to the National Humanities Center, the Awakening's emphasis on moral responsibility helped fuel the abolitionist movement, women's rights movement, and efforts towards educational reform. It also played a role in shaping American democracy by encouraging the involvement of the laity in religious and civic affairs.
What role did camp meetings play in the Second Great Awakening?
Camp meetings were a hallmark of the Second Great Awakening, serving as large, outdoor religious gatherings where people from various backgrounds would converge for several days of preaching, singing, and worship. These events could attract thousands of attendees and were particularly effective in rural areas where churches were scarce. Camp meetings helped to democratize religion by breaking down social barriers and allowing individuals to publicly profess their faith and experience emotional religious conversions.
Did the Second Great Awakening have any lasting effects on American religion?
Yes, the Second Great Awakening had lasting effects on American religion. It contributed to the proliferation of diverse religious sects and denominations, including Baptists and Methodists, which saw significant growth during this period. The movement also emphasized the importance of personal salvation and social reform, which continued to influence American religious and cultural life. Additionally, the Awakening's legacy can be seen in the ongoing tradition of revivalism and the evangelical movement in the United States.