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The Reagan Doctrine was the foreign policy in the United States, enacted by Ronald Reagan during his presidency, to help eliminate the communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were supported by the Soviet Union. Implementation of this plan provided both open and private support to guerrilla and resistance movements in Soviet-supported communist countries. This doctrine was the foreign policy of the United States from about 1980 to 1991.
During the initial years of the Cold War, the United States’ official policy towards communism was containment. With the creation of the Reagan Doctrine the focus shifted from keeping communism from spreading to eliminating existing communist governments. In addition to the rollback of these communist governments, the United States also wanted to encourage capitalism and democracy in those places.
The philosophy behind the Reagan Doctrine originated before Reagan’s presidency. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. President Jimmy Carter gave aide to Afghanistan in the form of weapons and military training to defeat Soviet forces. The Reagan Doctrine was seen by many supporters as an expansion on this philosophy.
The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, is responsible for the Reagan Doctrine becoming concrete foreign policy. This organization chose nine Soviet-supported communist countries that the United States should focus its attention on: Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia, Iran, Laos, Libya, Nicaragua, and Vietnam. It then encouraged the president’s administration to focus on giving military and financial aide to these countries, through endorsing the doctrine in books written to provide advice to his administration on foreign policy.
The Reagan Doctrine is credited by its supporters as helping to end the Cold War by stopping the Soviet Union from spreading its communist control over specific regions of the world. The policy’s philosophical justifications were to eliminate tyrannical governments and promote individual liberties, freedom, and democracy. The policy was successful because the United States financed these resistance movements with a relatively small amount of money, while the Soviet Union had to use more resources and suffered more losses of their military.
Although some credit the Reagan Doctrine for ending the Cold War, there are critics who argue this foreign policy was not a complete success. The U.S.-backed contras in Nicaragua were found to engage in illegal activities, such as drug trafficking and violating basic human rights of people within the country. Supporting the contras in Nicaragua also garnered criticism because the country was a target of the Soviet Union. Others argue that the Reagan Doctrine was too far-reaching because the resources spent on supporting the overthrow of these governments outweighed the benefits gained.
A new term, blowback, is also being used to refer to the negative impact of rolling back communist governments. Blowback has happened in countries like Afghanistan, where the weapons supplied by the United States to fight the Soviet Union are being turned against the United States. For instance, the military training and weapons provided there have fallen into terrorist hands.
Frequently Asked Questions
What was the Reagan Doctrine and what were its main objectives?
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was aimed at providing overt and covert aid to anti-communist guerrillas and resistance movements in an effort to "roll back" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The main objective was to diminish Soviet influence in these regions by supporting groups that were fighting against pro-Soviet or communist regimes.
How did the Reagan Doctrine differ from previous U.S. Cold War policies?
Unlike the containment strategy of the Truman Doctrine, which sought to prevent the spread of communism, the Reagan Doctrine was more aggressive, aiming to reduce Soviet influence by actively supporting insurgencies. It marked a shift from defensive containment to proactive rollback by aiding those who were fighting to overthrow communist governments. This doctrine was a significant escalation in the American approach to the Cold War, as it involved direct assistance to guerrilla warfare and resistance movements.
Can you give examples of where the Reagan Doctrine was applied?
The Reagan Doctrine was applied in several key regions around the world. In Afghanistan, the U.S. provided substantial support to the mujahideen fighters resisting the Soviet occupation. In Nicaragua, the U.S. backed the Contras who were fighting against the Sandinista government. Other notable examples include support for UNITA in Angola and for the Solidarity movement in Poland, both of which were resisting Soviet-aligned or communist governments.
What were the outcomes or consequences of the Reagan Doctrine?
The outcomes of the Reagan Doctrine were mixed. In some cases, such as in Afghanistan, it contributed to the eventual withdrawal of Soviet forces and the end of the Soviet occupation. However, the doctrine also had unintended consequences, including the prolongation of civil wars and the empowerment of groups that did not always align with U.S. interests in the long term. The support of the mujahideen, for instance, is cited as a factor that eventually led to the rise of the Taliban and al-Qaeda.
How is the Reagan Doctrine viewed in historical context today?
Historically, the Reagan Doctrine is viewed as a defining aspect of the Cold War's latter years, reflecting the assertive American foreign policy stance of the 1980s. It is credited by some as having contributed to the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, due to the economic and military pressures it placed on the Soviet bloc. However, it is also critiqued for its ethical implications and the long-term instability it caused in some regions.