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The president pro tempore of the Senate is the second-highest official in the United States Senate, after the vice president, who is the president ex officio of the Senate. Typically, the person holding this position is the senior senator of the majority party, and the highest ranking member of the Senate as a result. This position is primarily ceremonial, and it comes with numerous responsibilities and rather limited powers. It is considered a great honor to serve in this role, however, not least because it puts a senator third in the line of presidential succession.
This position was first outlined in 1789 in the Constitution. When the vice president is not available to preside over the Senate, the president pro tempore has the power to preside, governing proceedings and making rulings on points of procedure. It is not uncommon for this person to allow a junior senator to preside, giving the less experienced lawmaker a chance to learn more about how the Senate works. The official is entitled to a slightly larger staff than other senators, thanks to the increased responsibility associated with the position.
The Senate officially elects a member to this job, although by convention, the position is awarded to the senior member of the majority party, and the election is typically unanimous. In the event that the party majority changes and the senator remains in office, he or she becomes the emeritus president pro tempore. This is a mark of respect when the position is assumed by the senior member of the new majority party.
It is also possible to see an acting president pro tempore, an official who is appointed to take over when the person holding the position is incapacitated or disabled. Acting presidents are not in line for the office of the president, and they will be passed over in the event of a situation where the president and vice president are incapacitated. As a gesture of courtesy, former presidents and vice presidents are considered deputy presidents pro tempore, although it is extremely unusual for these officials to serve in the Senate after their terms are over.
A number of ceremonial duties accompany this position, and the official is usually expected to preside over major Senator proceedings. Due to his or her senior rank, he or she also usually has a number of committee obligations and other responsibilities. In recognition for the additional work which accompanies the position, it is compensated more than other senators.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the role of the President Pro Tempore of the Senate?
The President Pro Tempore, often shortened to President Pro Tem, is a constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. According to the U.S. Senate's official website, the President Pro Tempore is traditionally the most senior member of the majority party and stands third in the line of presidential succession. This role includes signing legislation and issuing the oath of office to new Senators.
How is the President Pro Tempore of the Senate chosen?
The President Pro Tempore is elected by the Senate and is typically a senior member of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service. While the position is largely ceremonial, it carries significant historical and prestige value. The selection is usually by resolution at the beginning of each Congress, and the tradition has been to elect the nominee of the majority party without opposition.
Has the President Pro Tempore ever assumed the Presidency?
No, the President Pro Tempore has never assumed the Presidency. The position is third in the line of succession after the Vice President and the Speaker of the House, as established by the Presidential Succession Act of 1947. However, the President Pro Tempore's role in the line of succession underscores the importance of the position in the federal government's continuity plans.
What are the duties of the President Pro Tempore when presiding over the Senate?
When presiding over the Senate, the President Pro Tempore has duties similar to those of the Vice President. These include maintaining order, recognizing members to speak, and putting questions to a vote. The President Pro Tempore may also appoint other Senators to preside in their absence, which is a common practice given the largely ceremonial nature of the role in modern times.
How does the President Pro Tempore impact the legislative process?
While the President Pro Tempore's role is primarily ceremonial, they can impact the legislative process through their ability to sign legislation and by presiding over the Senate during key debates and votes in the absence of the Vice President. However, most legislative decisions are made by party leadership and committees, with the President Pro Tempore's influence being more symbolic than direct.